Hénèi, Hanoi

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Also known as 鳳城, Fengcheng, or Phoenix Citadel.

Photo of Hoàn Kiếm Lake in the centre of Hanoi, with the streets of the old town in the background (1999). Tháp Bút (pen tower) next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake (2007)

Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Nội, Chinese: 河内), estimated population 3,398,889 (2007), is the capital of Vietnam. From 1010 until 1802, it was the political centre of an independent Vietnam with a few brief interruptions. Hanoi was eclipsed as the capital of Vietnam by city of Huế during the Nguyen Dynasty and then by Saigon during the French Indochina period. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam.

The city is located on the right bank of the Red River 1760 km (1094 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).

Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. One of the first known permanent settlements is the Co Loa citadel founded around 200 BC.
Hanoi has had many names throughout history, all of them of Sino-Vietnamese origin. During the Chinese domination of Vietnam from the Han Dynasty until 1010, it was known as Tống Bình (宋平) and later Long Đỗ (龍肚; literally "dragon's belly"). In 866, it was turned into a citadel and was named Đại La (大羅).

In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt (大越, the Great Viet, then the name of Vietnam) to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed it Thăng Long (昇龍, Ascending dragon) - a name still used poetically to this day. It remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397, when the capital was moved to Thanh Hóa, also known as Tây Đô (西都, Western Capital). Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (東都, Eastern Capital).

Vietnam was invaded by Chinese forces many times, in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and then in 1408, by troops from the Ming Dynasty. In 1428, Vietnam was liberated again from Chinese rule by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Le Dynasty and Đông Quan was renamed Đông Kinh (東京, Eastern Capital - the name known to Europeans as Tonkin. The same characters are used for Tokyo, Japan). During the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (北城, Northern Citadel).

In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty was established and then moved the capital down to present-day Huế, it was renamed Thăng Long ( "ascending dragon"). However, the second syllable of the toponym is actually a homonym of the word long, and so, actually suggests “to flourish” as opposed to “dragon”. Therefore, the name would then have appeared as 昇隆, roughly to ascend and flourish. In 1831 the Nguyen Dynasty renamed it Hà Nội (河内, can be translated as Between Rivers or River Interior) .

Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later until 1940 when it was occupied by the Japanese. "Liberated" in 1945, it was briefly the seat of the Viet Minh government when Hồ Chí Minh proclaimed the independence of Việt Nam. But the French came back and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces, Hanoi became the capital of an independent North Vietnam in 1954.

At the end of the Vietnam war, Hanoi became the capital of Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on July 2, 1976.

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Early On The Road To Phoenix Citadel 鳳凰路上早行
For Master Pu Ming of Anlang Temple 贈安朗寺普明禪師
Nhi River Pavillion 珥河亭
On the Road Toward the Southern Pass 南關道中
Setting Off In The Morning From The Nhi River 珥河曉發
Song for the Dragon Citadel Zitherist 龍城琴音歌
Thang Long (Hanoi) 昇龍
The Old Masters Meaning of Zen 視諸禪老參問禪旨
Tran Hung Dao's Proclamation 陳興道文告
Dinh Nho Hoan 1671-1716 丁儒完
Ho Chi Minh 1890-1969 胡志明
Le Hien Tong, Lí Xiǎnzōng 黎顯宗
Le Quy Don 1726-? 黎貴慎
Ly Thai To 974-1028 李太祖
Ly Thai Tong 1000-1054 李太宗
Ly Thuong Kiet 1019-1105 李常傑
Nguyen De, Ruǎn Tí 阮偍
Nguyen Du 1765-1820 阮攸
Nguyen Gia Cat, Ruǎn Jiājí 1762-? 阮嘉吉
Nguyen Hue 1753-1792 阮惠
Phung Khac Khoan 1528-1613 馮亮寬
Tran Nhan Tong 1258-1308 陳仁宗
Tran Thi Kien 1260?-1330? 陳時見
Van Hanh ?-1018 萬行
Yen Tu Mountain 安子峰
Bach Ma Temple 白馬祠
Chua Lang (Lǎngsì) 朗禪寺
Chua Mot Cot 獨柱寺
Chua Quan Su 館使寺
Chua Tay Phuong 崇福寺
Chua Thay 貝庵寺
Chua Tran Quoc (Zhènguósì) 鎮國寺
Chuo Bode Temple 菩提寺
Hai Ba Trung Temple 二征王祠
Hai Ba Trung Temple 二征王祠
Hanoi Cathedral 河內大教堂
Ngoc Son Pagoda, Yùshāncí 玉山祠
Quan Thanh Temple; 真武觀
Tay Ho Pagoda 西湖府
Thien Nien Pagoda 金蓮寺
Van Mieu 河內文廟
Vietnam (Yuènán) 越南